Patriarchs of Moscow and All Rus
Patriarchs of Moscow and All Rus. Holy Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus – the title of head of the Russian Orthodox Church. In different years used different variations of the title “Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus”, “Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia”, “Patriarch of Moscow and all the great and small, and Belya Russia” and others. The modern form, “Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia”, was used in ancient times and is used by modern historians to refer to all the patriarchs, in 1943, it became the official title. The Patriarchate was established in Moscow in 1589. The first was the patriarch Iov. Abolished in 1721, restored on October 28 (November 10), 1917, by decision of the All-Russian Local Council. Most portraits of Patriarchs are painted by artist Viktor Shilov.
The first Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Iov (1589-1605). The main purpose of his activity considered to strengthen the Russian Orthodoxy. On the initiative of the Patriarch held a series of transformations in the Russian Church, established new dioceses, founded dozens monasteries, started printing books. In 1605, refused to accept Falsdmitry and was deposed by rebels .
Second Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Hermogenes (1606-1612). His patriarchate coincided with a difficult period in Russian history – the Time of Troubles. He openly spoke against foreign invaders, against the construction of the Russian throne for Polish Prince. During the famine, which began in Moscow, Patriarch ordered to open for the hungry monastic barns. St. Hermogenes was deposed and imprisoned by the Poles in the Miracle Monastery, where he died of hunger and thirst.
Third Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Filaret (1619-1633), after the death of Tsar Fyodor, was one of the legitimate contenders for the Russian throne, because he was a nephew of Ivan the Terrible. After falling out of favor at Boris Godunov, Feodor Romanov was tonsured a monk with the name Filaret. In the Time of Troubles Dmitry II imprisoned the Metropolitan Filaret, where he stayed until 1619. Zemsky Sobor in 1613 was elected to the realm of Russian Mikhail Romanov, the son of Metropolitan Filaret, approving the last title of Patriarch. Patriarch Filaret became a close advisor and de facto co-ruler of Tsar Mikhail.
Fourth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Josaphat (1634-1640) was appointed by Patriarch Filaret. Patriarch Josaphat made a great job of correcting the liturgical books, for the six years of his reign was released 23 books, many of which were published for the first time. During his short reign was founded three monasteries and restored the previous five, closed down earlier.
Fifth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Joseph (1642-1652). Patriarch Joseph paid much attention to the cause of spiritual enlightenment. With his blessing in 1648 in Moscow was founded religious school at St. Andrew monastery – “Rtishchevsky brotherhood”. Thanks to Patriarch Joseph managed to take the first steps towards the reunification of Ukraine (Little Russia) with Russia.
The Sixth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Nikon (1652-1658) differed with deep asceticism, spirituality, extensive knowledge and received a special arrangement of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. With the active assistance of Patriarch Nikon in 1654 marked a historic reunification of Ukraine with Russia, and then Belarus. Patriarch Nikon distinguished himself as a church reformer: replaced two fingers on the sign of the cross to troeperstnoe (three fingers), revised liturgical books on Greek models.
Seventh Patriarch of All Russia, Josaphat ( 1667-1672 ) sought to implement and adopt reforms of Patriarch Nikon. He continued the Patriarch Nikon correction and publication of liturgical books. He worked on enlightening northern lands – eastern outskirts of Russia, the Amur River. On the border with China, was founded Spassky monastery.
Eighth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Pitirim (1672-1673). His reign lasted only 10 months. Was close to Patriarch Nikon, and after his deposition, Pitirim was one of the contenders for the Patriarchal throne. However, he was elected after the death of Patriarch Ioasaf II. It is known that Patriarch Pitirim baptized the future Russian Emperor Peter I in 1672 in the Miracle Monastery. In 1673, with the blessing of Patriarch Pitirim was founded Tver Ostashkovsky convent.
Ninth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Joachim (1674-1690). Patriarch Joachim efforts were focused on the fight against foreign influence on Russian society. He acted as mediator between the warring parties during the Troubles occurred in the matter of succession to the throne in 1682 and took action to stop the uprising Strelets.
Tenth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Adrian (1690-1700) was the last in dosinodalny period. The activities of Patriarch Adrian mainly related to the observance of the canons and the protection of the Church from heresy. Located in the old days and reluctant to respond to the reforms of Peter I, Patriarch Adrian supported important initiatives of the tsar – construction of naval, military and socio – economic transformation.
Eleventh Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Tikhon (1917-1925) After the 200th Synod of the period ( 1721-1917 ) All-Russian Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church Patriarchate restored. To the patriarchal throne was elected Metropolitan Tikhon of Moscow and Kolomna. New patriarch had to deal with the issue of relations with the new state system, hostile to the Church in terms of revolution, civil war and general chaos .
Twelfth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, Sergius (1943-1944). During the Great Patriotic War, Metropolitan Sergius organized the Defense Fund, on the collected money was built a tank column of the Dmitry Donskoi, also collected funds for the construction of aircraft, for the maintenance of the wounded, orphans. In 1943, Metropolitan Sergius was unanimously elected Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.
Thirteenth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy I (1945-1970) Patriarch Alexy I was elected to the Patriarchal throne in February 1945. His presiding coincided with the end of World War II and the follow-up was associated with the restoration of temples destroyed by the war, the restoration of fraternal relations with the Orthodox Churches, initiated contacts with the Roman Catholic Church. Established an active connection to the ancient Non-Chalcedonian Churches of the East, as well as the Protestant world.
Fourteenth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Pimen ( 1971-1990) was the successor of Patriarch Tikhon, Sergius, Alexis I. One of the most important aspects of the Patriarch Pimen was strengthening relations between the Orthodox Churches of different countries, the development of inter-Orthodox relations. In June 1988, Patriarch Pimen led the celebration of the Millennium of the Baptism of Russia, and the Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Fifteenth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II (1990-2008) opened thousands of temples and monasteries, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, began active training of clergy, opened new schools. May 17, 2007 was a landmark event in the history of the Russian Church – signed the Act of Canonical Communion between the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate and the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia.