Traditional jewelry in ancient Russia
Traditional jewelry in ancient Russia. Russian folk costume is an integral part of the culture of our ancestors, has come down to us through the centuries. In Russia, the garment can determine social class person, this appearance has always attached special importance. In the above picture there are Perly (rods, sticks) – a necklace of freshwater pearls in the horsehair. Pearls mined in northern rivers. Pearls adorned hats and clothing made from it earrings, necklaces, preserved in folk costume until the beginning of XX century. Freshwater pearls produced in kidney-shaped shells. The size of freshwater pearls ranges from small grains to peas diameter 10-14 mm. In the great festivals in Zadonsk and Zemlyansky districts of Voronezh region, width of rods could be up to ten of these threads.
Koltushi сonsist of two convex plates, welded together with the handle of the top for hanging. There are round or star-shaped. Round decorated with images of birds, the Syrin, the tree of life, flowers, and later Christian motifs.
Hryvnia – cervical ring, sometimes with a broad insertion of solid gold or silver plate, decorated with carving, common in Kievan Rus. Often it’s not fastened and clamped around neck.
Kolodochka (tow) – tightly-woven surround collar of beads or chain that simulates body of a snake. Was widespread in Kaluga, Ryazan and Tula, as an ornament for girls and young women. And Lariat (coil, snake) – this is the long version, served as beads, or a belt.
Gribatka – like Gaitan, only strips of beads or chains are divided with ornament, like the main medallion on flat stretches
Gaitan (Gerdan, Ethan, Gita, koroleska, pochepka, chapochka) – breast, sometimes back decoration, made first of twisted metal rings, like a chain with a cross or an icon, then added artful weaving out of beads or threads. Now, Gaitana are long (up to waist), width of 10 cm, a strip of beads. The two ends are connected with glass beads suspension with ornament – a medallion beaded tassels, in ancient times with “vstavaranka” (bones from the chicken wing).
Butterflies is a metal rod with two blades, delicate, braided with pearls in the form of a butterfly’s wings, strung on horsehair or thin wire and attached to the bottom of the teardrop pendants or bell. Metal base made mostly of brass – an alloy of copper and zinc and other elements, the shackle made of silver. The shape of pearl earrings formed by the end of XVIII century. In the XIX century, became a substitute for natural pearls, pearl beads, glass beads.
Golubtsy (from the word Pigeons), eagles, XVI-XVII century – a massive earrings resembled the silhouette stylized figures of one or two birds facing each other’s backs
Odintsy, dvoychatki, Triad – came about the XV century, hanging earrings with 1, 2 or 3 rods with carnelian, bone, mother of pearl beads or cylinders, beads, pearls. Were common in Kaluga, the northern and central parts of European Russia.
Pyasy – approximately XIV, massive suspension on the Shvenzy ring with bells at the bottom. Shvenzy ring was attached to the tapes or headgear, or fastened to the ear. Later, they were made of beads.
Necklace (Manistee, necklaces) – layered necklaces, pendants, sometimes with coins.
Lenka (Wade, neck tape, ozherelok, zharelok, podzherelok, podgorlok) – richly embroidered fabric collar made by it with ribbons, fringe or beads.
Naborushnik (Mantle, glunets) – circular decoration, front decorated with embroidery, gold or silver thread, gold thread, colored foil stripes, pearls or beads.
Temple rings were used in the 13th century. They were found in Vyatichi Burials, Moscow region. Made of Bronze, silver or gold. Women’s jewelry was woven into the hair at the temples.
Known since the Bronze Age, but in the 13th century, began to withdraw from circulation. The shape of the rings can identify tribe to which they belonged, and the owner or the area in which she lived (the union of tribes).
1 – Vyatichi,
2 – Radimiches (semiluchevye)
3 – Krivichy (brasletoobraznye)
4 – Ilmenskie words (romboschitkovye)
5 – northerners (spiral).