Eastern Siberia historical monuments
In no other part of the world is it as difficult to get at these riches. Man is challenged by severe climatic conditions, perma-frost, impenetrable forests, mighty and swift rivers, stormy ocean and other barriers. That is why only those endowed with daring, endurance, perseverance and firmness can get at its riches. The first to explore this land were Cossacks. Their expeditions took many years. By the middle of the seventeenth century they had reached the northernmost point of the Asian continent, Kamchatka, the Okhotsk sea and the Amur river area. They were followed by the first settlers.
Among the explorers were Bering (a Dane who spent mod of his life in Russia), Stepan Krashenninikov, Steller (a German), Anjoux (a Frenchman), the merchant Grigori Shelikhov (he was born near Kursk, and charted the trade routes across the ocean to California) and Ivan Chersky, a Polish student who was exiled to Siberia for taking part in student uprisings. He lived in Yakutia and devoted his whole life to its exploration.
But Yakutia and Chukotka, the lake Baikal area and Primorsk territory, Kamchatka and the Sakhalin were not deserted before the coming of the Russian pioneers. Local civilization goes bark many centuries. Siberian archeologists have lately made many interesting discoveries in the mod areas (Chukotka, for example) and step by step have reconstructed the history of Eastern Siberia and the Far East.
A very important role in developing Siberia played those who were exiled here on ‘‘Tsar’s will”. Among those exiled to the farthest and the deepest parts of Siberia were the outstanding representatives of the nation. In far away Ilyimsk Radischev was in exile. Many of the Decembrists, who during the revolt on Senate square were younger than twenty- five, spent most of their lives in Siberian exile. Only a few were fortunate to return home as old men. Chernyshevsky spent twenty years in Siberian exile. And these people took a very active role in developing Siberia.
The word monument can be very widely interpreted. They include not only wooden structures of ancient time that are carefully being preserved against the effects of time and nature; nor the great monuments to the outstanding events and people of the past. They include the monuments of our times, of our deeds, our hopes and accomplishments.
Besides, Siberia is changing fast.
British navigator Captain Charles Clerke, a contemporary of James Cook and his successor as the head of the third Round-the-World Expedition of 1776-1779. It was “… a gallant but unsuccessful attempt to penetrate the ice beyond the Bering strait…” the ships “Resolution” and “Discovery” sailed into the Avachinsk bау. On its shore they buried Charles Clerke, who died at sea. The monument was constructed bу a delegation of visiting British sailors in 1913. “… to mark their appreciation of the brave and honorable career of the gallant British officer.”
This house was frequented by the Decembrists Nikolai and Mikhail Bestuzhev. Here Nikolai Przhevalsky stayed before undertaking his expeditions to Mongolia, Tibet and Northern China in 1870 and 1883. He also stayed here after completing his 1880 expedition to Tibet. In 1892, Grigori and Alexandra Potanina and Vladimir Obruchev (a wife and husband) stayed here before undertaking their expeditions. And the soil expert and scientist Dmitry Prianishnikov was born in this house in 1865.
The Congress (March I, 1921), adopted the party program and elected the Central Committee and the command of the People’s Revolutionary Army headed by Sukhe-Bator and Choibalsan. Here on March 13, 1921, the Congres of the workers, partisans and party organizations was held to elect the People’s government of the Mongolian Republic headed by Sukhe-Bator. Photo: A. Falamov
“Chiasovnia” monument near the mas grave of the sailors and soldiers who died defending the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky from enemy landing on August 24, 1854 (adjoining is the mass grave of the French and British soldiers, who took part in the landing). The monument was constructed in 1910-1912, on donation of the city’s residents. Unveiled on August 24, 1912. In the chapel hangs the Russian Naval banner and stands a cannon that was used in defending the city in 1854. Photo: G. Dmitriev